Salmonella: come ridurre i rischi di contaminazione

Pochi giorni fa è arrivata dagli Stati Uniti la notizia della contaminazione da salmonella di alcuni milioni di uova destinati ad aziende e supermercati di diversi Stati del Paese; proprio per la grandezza del fenomeno, si parla di oltre 380 milioni di uova sequestrate, il CDC, ovvero il Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ha stipulato un vademecum con alcune linee guida per limitare il pericolo di contaminazione.

Innanzi tutto ricordiamo cos’è la salmonella, ovvero un un’infezione causata da un batterio che si trova soprattutto nei gusci delle uova ma che può penetrare anche all’interno di essi; non è immune da possibile contaminazione anche la carne, specie di pollo, il latte e i suoi derivati. Dato che non è sempre facile individuare la presenza dell’infezione, è opportuno seguire alcune semplici regole.

Innanzi tutto, conservate sempre le uova in frigorifero e se le lasciate a temperatura ambiente, cuocetele subito, in modo che eventuali batteri non possano proliferare a lungo all’interno dell’uovo.

La Salmonella Enteritidis, ovvero il batterio che provoca l’infezione, può essere ucciso con la cottura, a patto che sia appropriata: infatti esso può rimanere vivo in caso di temperature troppo basse o di alimenti cotti male. Dopo la cottura mangiate subito il cibo e non  lasciatelo mai in conservazione a temperatura ambiente.

In ogni caso prestate molta attenzione alle uova: se sono sporche o rotte è meglio buttarle, evitate di mangiarle crude, una volta che avete finito di maneggiarle, lavatevi bene le mani, e mantenete il frigo alla giusta temperatura soprattutto durante i mesi estivi.

A parte le uova e derivati, sono a rischio di contaminazione anche il latte crudo e quello in polvere, la carne poco cotta e le creme per dolci. Per quanto riguarda i sintomi, in caso di infezioni da salmonella, in genere sono rappresentati da dolori addominali, vomito e diarrea, che si manifestano circa 12 ore dopo aver mangiato il cibo contaminato; l’infezione si cura con gli antibiotici e in genere non si protrae per più di una settimana.  

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