Disturbi gastrointestinali e festività natalizie, i consigli degli esperti

disturbi gastrointestinaliI disturbi gastrointestinali sono tra i fastidi che più assillano gli italiani: secondo le stime dell’Anifa, l’Associazione Nazionale dell’Industria Farmaceutica dell’Automedicazione, ne soffrono sei italiani su dieci di età compresa fra i 15 e 64 anni. Se questi disturbi sono frequenti durante tutto l’anno nel periodo delle feste toccano il loro picco massimo, dato che in questi giorni l’apparato digerente viene sottoposto a un maggiore stress.

Per disturbi gastrointestinali si intendono bruciore di stomaco, cattiva digestione, meteorismo, aerofagia e diarrea tutti stati che, tendono ad aumentare in seguito agli eccessi alimentari, oppure al consumo di alcuni alimenti e alla loro modalità di preparazione come ad esempio i fritti, i piatti ricchi di grassi o con condimenti particolarmente elaborati, proprio come quelli che, generalmente, vengono serviti per i pranzi e le cene del periodo di Natale.

Tuttavia limitare i danni è possibile, come spiega il dottor Attilio Giacosa, direttore scientifico del Dipartimento di Gastroenterologia del Gruppo Sanitario Policlinico di Monza:

Quello che è importante è non eccedere nell’insieme: se mangio un primo più ricco sarò più cauto con il secondo e viceversa  È inoltre saggio fare due passi dopo mangiato, evitare di fumare durante il pasto e concluderlo senza esagerare con superalcolici nelle due ore successive.

Se nonostante le accortezze dopo i pasti si avvertono i sintomi di uno più disturbi digestivi o gastrointestinali, si può ricorrere ai farmaci di automedicazione, a patto di seguire le indicazioni del farmacista. Tra i diversi farmaci adatti a questi disturbi, sono particolarmente indicati o cosiddetti procinetici, in grado di accelerare i tempi di transito e di normalizzare lo svuotamento gastrico; in caso di bruciore o acidità gastrica si possono usare antiacidi e i farmaci antisecretori.

Gli eccessi alimentari non sono l’unica causa dei disturbi gastrointestinali: ci sono anche i virus a provocare diarrea e nausea; nel primo caso evitate il latte e i latticini, limitate il consumo di vegetali, sì al riso e ai fermenti lattici. Nel caso, invece, di nausea e vomito, evitate i cibi fritti, piccanti e troppo elaborati e limitate i liquidi durante i pasti. In caso di forte dolore si può ricorrere ai farmaci procinetici da assumere al bisogno e dietro consiglio del farmacista.

Infine, gli esperti danno anche alcuni consigli per chi, in occasione delle vacanze di Natale, ha deciso di partire per un Paese tropicale; in questo caso le precauzioni sono d’obbligo, per questo è consigliabile portare con sé un kit di farmaci da viaggio, ovvero una medicina in grado di rallentare la motilità intestinale, un farmaco per rilassare i muscoli della parete intestinale, qualcosa per attenuare il vomito e la nausea e dei fermenti lattici.

 

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