Cause e rimedi per la ritenzione idrica

La ritenzione idrica è un disturbo che af­fligge il 30% della po­polazione femminile italiana, ma cosa c’è all’origine di questo problema? E com’è pos­sibile risolverlo? Innanzitutto sarà bene distinguere tra 4 vari tipi:

  • circolatoria o primaria, ovvero l’accumulo di liquidi negli spazi tra cellule causata dalla stasi circola­toria per un malfunzionamento venoso (in particolare negli arti in­feriori);
  • secondaria, ovvero risultato di altre patologie ben più gravi, come l’insufficienza renale, car­diaca, patologie epatiche o iper­tensione;
  • iatrogena, derivante da un uso non corretto di farmaci;
  • alimentare, causata da un’ec­cessiva assunzione di sodio (ali­menti salati).

La ritenzione idrica negli anni è di­venuta sia uno spauracchio che una sorta di alibi per le donne, in­fatti spesso erroneamente le si at­tribuisce la responsabilità di stati di sovrappeso, quando invece il rapporto causa-effetto è opposto, ovvero l’essere sovrappeso e uno stile di vita sedentario cau­sano la ritenzione idrica, inne­scando un circolo vizioso. Per scoprire con certezza qual è il vo­stro problema (ritenzione o massa grassa), basterà sottoporsi ad una visita con bilancia impedenziome­trica, in grado di misurare la per­centuale di liquido corporeo.

Dopodichè, chi è afflitto da riten­zione idrica secondaria dovrà cu­rare sia il disturbo principale che la causa, mentre per quanto ri­guarda la iatrogena sarà il caso, sempre sotto consiglio del me­dico curante, di riesaminare il piano terapeutico. Alimentazione: guai a ricorrere a diete drastiche che prevedano la totale eliminazione del sale o la maniacale lettura delle etichette (persino dell’acqua minerale), ba­sterà invece adottare alcune ac­cortezze, come ad esempio assumere alimenti ricchi di vita­mina C (agrumi, spinaci, lattuga, broccoletti, cavolfiore, pomodori), disintossicarsi da caffé, alcolici e carne e provvedere sempre ad una corretta idratazione,

Un trucco per diminuire le quan­tità di sale assunte durante i pasti è quello di salare la pasta a cot­tura terminata, diminuire al mas­simo il consumo di formaggi, insaccati, e cibi confezionati e im­parare a sostituire il sale dove possibile con spezie e aceto bal­samico. Per favorire il drenaggio dei liquidi si consigliano degli ali­menti ricchi di potassio e poveri di sodio.

Oltre a modificare il proprio com­portamento a tavola, bisognerà anche guardare allo stile di vita che si conduce. Infatti, come spesso sentiamo ripetere, fare at­tività fisica è la prima terapia da tentare e non costa nulla! Un pizzico di movimento tutti i giorni rimetterà in moto la micro­circolazione. Basta una passeg­giata, un giro in bicicletta o qualche vasca in piscina. Nei casi più seri il medico può prescrivere dei diuretici, per favorire l’elimina­zione dei liquidi. Esistono anche dei rimedi naturali contro la riten­zione idrica.

Quelli per la circola­zione sono cipresso, rusco, amamelide, dentella e tarassaco, che aumentano il tono delle pareti venose e possono essere assunti in varie forme (capsule, gocce). Anche l’ippocastano è noto per le sue proprietà decongestionanti, e per questo spesso si trova tra gli ingredienti delle pomate per ri­durre il gonfiore agli arti inferiori. Per il drenaggio si consigliano gramigna, pilesella, asparago, be­tulla e ciliegio, assunti sotto forma di gocce disciolte in una bottiglia d’acqua, da sorseggiare durante la giornata, aumenta l’elimina­zione dei liquidi in eccesso e im­pediscono il ristagno venoso. Anche l’ananas ha proprietà an­tinfiammatorie, mentre per uso esterno (massaggi) sono consi­gliate l’arancia amara, la caffeina e le alghe della Bretagna che sti­molano l’eliminazione dei grassi superficiali.

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