Perchè le donne ingrassano in menopausa? La dieta da seguire

Perchè donne ingrassano menopausa dieta È vero che in menopausa s’ingrassa? Dipende. In generale, lo squilibrio ormonale porta ad accumulare il grasso soprattutto sul girovita e secondo una ricerca condotta dagli esperti della Ohio State University, la causa sarebbe di un enzima, nome in codice Aldh1a1 e interessa unicamente il sesso femminile.

Menopausa: perché s’ingrassa?

I ricercatori americani hanno pubblicato i risultati dello studio sulla rivista scientifica Diabetes e in base ai test effettuati in laboratorio su un gruppo di topi maschi e femmine, sottoposti allo stesso tipo di dieta (molto ricca di grassi), è emerso come questo enzima sia in grado di favorire l’aumento di adipe. I roditori femmina a cui l’Aldh1a1 è stato inibito geneticamente, infatti, sono rimasti di pari peso e di pari misure rispetto a prima.

Questo enzima è presente nell’organismo della donna anche prima della menopausa, ma grazie agli estrogeni, in gran quantità durante la giovinezza, viene inibito. Con la menopausa, invece, si riduce l’attività delle ovaie e di conseguenza anche i livelli di estrogeni e del progesterone. Se vi state chiedendo se siano riusciti ad individuare anche una possibile cura per contrastare tale fenomeno, devo deludervi. Al momento, l’unica cosa che funziona davvero è mangiare sano e mantenersi in forma.

Sebbene gli esperti sostengano che le donne in menopausa tendono ad ingrassare, sono concordi sul fatto che l’aumento di peso non è attivato o comunque non derivi dalla menopausa in sé per sé, ma da altri fattori, quali:

Assunzione eccessiva di calorie attraverso la dieta: se pensate di poter mangiare come prima, probabilmente finirete per ingrassare. È necessario, perciò, seguire una dieta ad hoc, che rispecchi il mutato fabbisogno calorico giornaliero. Senza considerare che la massa muscolare diminuisce con l’avanzare dell’età e se il grasso prende il posto dei muscoli le calorie vengono bruciate meno velocemente.

Scarso esercizio fisico: in menopausa si ha la tendenza a fare meno esercizio fisico in quanto si perde la forza muscolare, ma è importante sostenere la massa muscolare con l’attività fisica.

Stress fisico e mentale: la menopausa comporta una serie di cambiamenti fisici, che si ripercuotono anche sulla psiche. È facile sentirsi più fragili, vulnerabili e maggiormente influenzabili dagli eventi esterni, sebbene numerosi studi abbiano dimostrato come non sia la menopausa in sé per sé ad essere responsabile di questa condizione di disagio psicologico, ma i fattori socio-culturali.

Menopausa: rischi per la salute

La menopausa, associata all’aumento di peso, può esporre ad una serie di rischi per la salute, quali:

  • Colesterolo alto
  • Ipertensione
  • Diabete di tipo 2
  • Infarto
  • Ictus
  • Tumore del colon retto
  • Tumore al seno

Menopausa: la dieta da seguire

A tavola vanno privilegiati i cereali integrali, i legumi, le verdure e il pesce. Da ridurre, invece, i formaggi stagionati, i salumi, le carni rosse, lo zucchero, l’olio, il caffè, e le bevande, sia alcoliche che gasate. Occorre poi mangiare di meno. Per mantenersi in forma dovrete diminuire l’apporto calorico di 200 kcal al giornaliero rispetto a quello a cui si è abituati. Inoltre, è utile inserire alcuni alimenti molto ricchi di calcio quali:

  • Parmigiano
  • Latte
  • Tuorlo
  • Mandorle
  • Nocciole
  • Noci
  • Broccoli
  • Cavolini di Bruxelles
  • Cavolo verde
  • Ceci
  • Crescione
  • Fagioli bianchi
  • Insalata belga
  • Latte di soia
  • Soia
  • Tofu
  • Salmone
  • Sardine

Esempio di dieta per la menopausa

1° giorno

  • Colazione: yogurt di soia e frutta fresca.
  • Pranzo: insalata di legumi misti e polpette di miglio.
  • Spuntino: un frullato di frutta con latte di soia.
  • Cena: hamburger di soia e finocchi gratinati ai semi di sesamo.

2° giorno

  • Colazione: cappuccino di latte di soia con 2 biscotti alle mandorle.
  • Pranzo: spaghetti integrali con tofu alle olive, zucchine saltate.
  • Spuntino: 1 pezzetto di parmigiano reggiano.
  • Cena: insalata mista e bocconcini di pollo.

Inoltre, per evitare di mettere su peso è necessario incrementare l’attività fisica.

Photo Credit| Thinkstock

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