I sali minerali, le principali fonti alimentari

sali-minerali

I sali minerali sono composti inorganici che svolgono un ruolo di fondamentale importanza nel funzionamento degli organismi viventi, sia animali che vegetali. Sono coinvolti infatti in alcuni processi che vanno dalla sintesi delle proteine, alla crescita e sviluppo di alcuni organi e tessuti, sono essenziali ad esempio per lo sviluppo di denti e ossa, fino alla regolazione dell’equilibrio idrosalino delle cellule.

Poichè, analogamente a quanto avviene per le vitamine, il nostro organismo non è in grado di sintetizzarli autonomamente, essi vanno assunti ogni giorno attraverso l’alimentazione. Rispetto ad altri nutrienti, soprattutto proteine, grassi e carboidrati il fabbisogno giornaliero di sali minerali è minimo, essi infatti rappresentano nell’uomo solo il 6% del peso corporeo.

I sali minerali vengono distinti in tre grandi gruppi a seconda del loro fabbisogno quotidiano:

  • Macroelementi
  • Microelementi
  • Oligoelementi

I macroelementi sono quei sali minerali presenti nell’organismo in quantità più elevata e il cui fabbisogno giornaliero è superiore ai 100 mg. Sono macroelementi fosforo, calcio, cloro, magnesio, potassio, sodio, zolfo.

I microelementi sono quei minerali il cui fabbisogno giornaliero varia da meno di 1 mg sino a 100 mg. Sono microelementi ferro, rame, zinco, fluoro, iodio, selenio, cromo, cobalto, manganese, molibdeno, silicio, nichel, vanadio.

Gli oligoelementi sono invece presenti solo in tracce nell’organismo umano, si tratta di arsenico, stagno, nichel, germanio, vanadio, tungsteno, piombo.

Fonti di sali minerali

La fonte più completa di sali minerali è rappresentata dai cereali, che, seppure molto ricchi di ferro, rame, manganese e nichel, risultano piuttosto poveri di calcio, zinco e selenio. I latticini contengono invece elevate quantità di calcio e di fosforo, mentre i vegetali hanno in generale un elevato contenuto di potassio.

Ma vediamo più nel dettaglio le principali fonti alimentari di ciascuno dei sali minerali più importanti:

Calcio: latte e derivati, ortaggi a foglia verde, pesce in scatola.

Magnesio: frutta secca, soia e cacao.

Sodio: sale da tavola, olive, latte e spinaci.

Potassio: legumi, patate, pomodori, banane.

Cloro: sale da tavola

Zolfo: carne, uova, legumi

Ferro: verdure a foglia verde, pesce, uova,  frutta secca, cereali, fagioli.

Fosforo: latte e pesce.

I sali minerali contenuti negli alimenti non si disperdono durante la cottura, anche se possono sciogliersi in acqua.

In genere una dieta equilibrata è sufficiente ad assicurare il fabbisogno giornaliero di sali minerali, tuttavia in particolari situazioni, come in presenza di patologie o in caso di gravidanza, può rendersi necessaria l’assunzione di integratori.

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