Orzo, calorie e valori nutrizionali

orzo

L’uso nell’alimentazione umana dell’orzo va sempre più diminuendo: se si esclude il suo utilizzo per produrre birra e whisky, nei paesi ad alta industrializzazione viene usato più per gli animali che per l’uomo; eppure l’orzo è una delle più antiche graminacee utilizzate dall’uomo per la sua alimentazione, in quanto, crescendo anche in terreni poco fertili e adattandosi a qualsiasi clima, può essere coltivato in quasi tutti i paesi del mondo.

Per l’alimentazione umana si usa in genere l’orzo duro, che è più ricco di proteine, mentre per la preparazione del malto per whisky e birra, l’orzo tenero, che contiene più amido; poi c’è l’orzo perlato, ovvero sottoposto a processi di sbiancatura e di lucidatura e privato della crusca, l’orzo integrale, che mantiene i fattori bionutrizionali in quantità maggiore di quello perlato. In commercio si trova anche l’orzo decorticato che è un ottimo compromesso tra quello integrale e quello perlato; questo tipo di orzo viene sottoposto a un processo di decorticazione nel quale vengono eliminate alcune parti esterne della buccia, ma che gli fa conservare le sue caratteristiche nutrizionali.

L’orzo è un alimento molto nutritivo: contiene amido, proteine, zuccheri, sali minerali e vitamine del gruppo A e B; è molto digeribile ed è un valido aiuto nella prevenzione delle malattie polmonari e cardiovascolari, svolge un’azione disintossicante ed emolliente, in quanto cura i disturbi e le infiammazioni dell’apparato digerente e delle vie urinarie.

La sua facile digeribilità ne fa un alimento particolarmente indicato per i bambini, le persone anziane e per i convalescenti; attenzione, però: essendo molto proteico deve essere consumato con moderazione dalle persone che soffrono di problemi renali; inoltre può provocare fenomeni di meteorismo.

Dalla macinazione dei chicchi si ottiene una farina che si può usare per preparare il pane, i dolci e le minestre; i fiocchi d’orzo, ottenuti dai semi schiacciati e riscaldati, possono essere usati per arricchire minestre, zuppe, latte e yogurt; con l’orzo tostato si ottiene un ottimo sostituto del caffè, che può essere bevuto anche dai bambini.

Orzo decorticato, calorie e valori nutrizionali
Valori nutrizionali per 100 grammi di prodotto

Calorie: 354 Kcal
Acqua: 9,44 g.
Carboidrati: 73,48 g.
Grassi: 2,3 g.
Proteine: 12,48 g.
Fibre: 17,3 g.
Zuccheri: 0,8 g.
Calcio: 33 mg.
Sodio:12 mg.
Fosforo: 264 mg.
Potassio: 452 mg.
Ferro: 3,6 mg.
Selenio: 37,7 mcg.

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