Aspartame, nemico della salute?

L’aspartame è un dolcificante artificiale largamente impiegato come sostituto dello zucchero in caso di diabete e nell’ambito di diete ipocaloriche; questo nonostante sia stato oggetto di controversie praticamente sin dalla sua “comparsa” nel 1965 quando il suo potere dolcificante fu scoperto, per puro caso, dal  chimico James M. Schlatter che stava lavorando alla produzione di un farmaco anti-ulcera presso i laboratori della casa farmaceutica statunitense G.D. Searle & Company.

Da quel momento l’azienda sviluppò un grande interesse per gli usi alimentari dell’aspartame e chiese alla Food and Drug Administration (FDA) l’autorizzazione per immetterlo in commercio come additivo alimentare. Il via libera arrivò nel 1974  nonostante alcuni studi ne avessero evidenziato effetti cancerogeni nel ratto ma, in seguito a un’inchiesta pubblica, nel 1980 fu impedito il rilascio di una nuova autorizzazione in attesa di risultati più certi sulla sua sicurezza. Il rinnovo fu però ottenuto l’anno successivo sotto l’amministrazione Reagan in base ai dati presumibilmente rassicuranti di  uno studio condotto in Giappone.

Da allora l’aspartame è entrato stabilmente a far parte della vita di molti di noi ma polemiche circa la sua tossicità non si sono mai assopite, anzi: se da un lato nuovi studi ne hanno confermato gli effetti cancerogeni su animali da laboratorio (senza riuscire però a stabilire un chiaro legame di causa-effetto tra i due fenomeni, nè a chiarire gli eventuali meccanismi d’azione tossici) dall’altro  uno studio promosso nel 2005 dalla California Environmental Protection Agency,  ha rilevato un aumento dell’incidenza di linfomi e leucemie nei topi femmina a seguito di assunzione di aspartame anche a bassi dosaggi.

Tali effetti sono stati confermati da uno studio, pubblicato sullo European Journal of Oncology nel luglio del 2005, della Fondazione Ramazzini di Bologna, i cui risultati, insieme a quelli di tutti gli studi effettuati sull’aspartame negli ultimi vent’anni, sono stati valutati dall’Agenzia Europea per la Sicurezza Alimentare (EFSA) che non ha tuttavia rietnuto che ci fossero elementi nè per ritirare l’aspartame dal commercio, nè per condurre ulteriori studi.

D’altra parte anche lo statunitense National Cancer Institute ha sancito la sicurezza dell’aspartame in seguito a un’indagine durata cinque anni e condotta su un campione di mezzo milione di persone, presso il quale non è stato rilevato alcun aumento dell’incidenza di linfomi, leucemie e tumori del cervello. Ciononostante l’Istituto Ramazzini ha condotto nel 2007 un nuovo studio, pubblicato nello stesso anno su Environmental Health Perspectives e basato sull’assunzione della  dose giornaliera consigliata di aspartame sin dai primi anni di vita, rilevando evidenti indicatori di rischio per la salute umana, in particolare dei bambini.

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1.827 commenti su “Aspartame, nemico della salute?”

    • Ciao Mariella,
      mettere lo zucchero e il sale nel caffé mi sembra disgustoso, ma soprattutto che faccia dimagrire è una leggenda metropolitana. Se stai seguendo una dieta, meglio il fruttosio, indicato persino per i diabetici, ma come sempre il consiglio è quello di non eccedere. Non è quel cucchiaino di zucchero nel caffé che fa ingrassare, questo è bene precisarlo.

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