Indice di massa corporea e indice di volume corporeo: qual è il calcolo più efficace?

Il corpo umano è diviso in due macro componenti: la massa magra e la massa grassa; la prima, ovvero la massa magra è composta dai muscoli, dalle ossa, dagli organi interni e dall’acqua, e rappresenta l’80% del peso corporeo totale; la massa grassa, invece, è costituita dal tessuto adiposo e rappresenta il 20% del peso complessivo.

Per calcolare la massa corporea si può ricorrere ad uno dei criteri riconosciuti dall’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità, ossia il BMI, lindice di massa corporea (Body Mass Index); l’indice di massa corporea mette in rapporto l’altezza con il peso corporeo e per calcolarlo si usa una semplice formula: peso corporeo espresso in chilogrammi diviso altezza in metri, elevata al quadrato.

L’indice di massa corporea è semplicemente un calcolo molto approssimativo che non tiene in considerazione il tipo di costituzione e che non può determinare la percentuale della massa grassa ma solo un valore indicativo.

Proprio per ovviare alla relatività del risultato del calcolo dell’indice della massa corporea è stato messo a punto un nuovo metodo, ovvero il BVI, l’indice di volume corporeo (Body Volume Index). Per calcolare questo indice è stato messo a punto, in Gran Bretagna, uno speciale scanner in grado di misurare il grasso corporeo e, quindi, di distinguere la massa adiposa da quella muscolare.

Lo scanner è stato realizzato per poter decretare con precisione il livello di obesità di una persona, e garantisce una misurazione molto accurata e quindi efficace. Lo strumento, infatti, considera sia la costituzione fisica che l’adipe presente nel corpo, una relazione che, invece, non era possibile stabilire con il solo calcolo dell’indice della massa corporea.

Lo scanner per il calcolo dell’indice di volume corporeo è prodotto da Select Research e per adesso è utilizzato, in via sperimentale, solo dall’Heartlands Hospital di Birmingham, ma si spera che nei prossimi anni possa essere utilizzato anche negli ambulatori medici.

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