Calcio e vitamina D non servono contro il colesterolo

Secondo i risultati di uno studio effettuato dai medici dell’Albert Einstein College of Medicine di New York e pubblicato sulla rivista scientifica American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, aggiungere più calcio e vitamina D alla dieta non basta a tenere sotto controllo il colesterolo LDL (ovvero il cosiddetto colesterolo cattivo); piuttosto, per raggiungere questo obiettivo, è più opportuno osservare, per tutto l’arco della vita, uno stile alimentare sano e bilanciato e, soprattutto, povero di grassi.

Sappiamo tutti molto bene che l’ipercolesterolemia rappresenta un fattore di rischio per lo sviluppo di malattie cardiovascolari ed esistono numerose teorie circa le sostanze che possono intervenire sulla colesterolemia modulandola positivamente; fra queste quella secondo la quale calcio e la vitamina D possono intervenire nel metabolismo lipidico con modulazione dei livelli di colesterolo.

I ricercatori dell’Albert Einstein College, attingendo dati dallo studio Women’s Health Initiative, hanno monitorato 1191 donne in menopausa: un gruppo assumeva ogni giorno 1000 mg  di calcio e 400 unità di vitamina D, un altro un placebo. Al termine della sperimentazione, durata 5 anni, si è osservato come  fra i due gruppi di donne non ci fosse alcuna differenza nei livelli di colesterolo HDL  ed LDL. Tuttavia, bisogna rilevare come lo studio abbia preso in considerazione solo donne in menopausa, mentre non ha rilevato l’efficacia di vitamina D e calcio nel controllo del colesterolo nella popolazione maschile e in donne in età fertile.

Per tenere a bada colesterolo rimane comunque valido il consiglio di evitare i cibi più ricchi di trigliceridi quali burro, margarina, salumi, carni, latte intero, formaggi stagionati e alimenti che contengono strutto e lardo, limitandone il consumo a non più di due volte a settimana. Attenzione anche ai dolci, allo zucchero bianco e ai carboidrati raffinati, anche questi da introdurre nella dieta con grande parsimonia. Via libera invece ai cibi ricchi di fibre, frutta e verdura prima di tutti.

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